Z. Dahlen Parker

Plus Revisions to date 2013 and a 2017 clarification and typo-fix.

Electric discharge patterns, seen in a thin layer of dust on a CRT, have a striking resemblance to many features seen on moons and asteroids. This low tech experiment with electrostatics has revealed a reasonable alternative explanation to how some planetary surface features were formed.

Link to CRT crater chain

Many features on moons and asteroids offer challanges to believability when explained through the mechanism of an impact.

The anomalies are numerous but the most obvious challenge to that 'theory' comes from the existance of chains of craters that appear to overlap each other.

A unique and highly structured set of circumstances would be required to form such features.

If an impact explanation was to be used several problems arise.

    To get a chain of craters youíd need a chain of objects and they would need to impact in tight formation nearly on top of one another.

    This was not observed with comet Shoemaker-Levy 9.

    Are there any instances to support a tight chain of impactors? Possibly a condition comparable to an ice-hail storm.

    But the next image from Ganymede calls for consideration of another cause with unique dynamics involved.

    Ganymede Crater chain Image

    Link to TPOD article and image

    How can this feature be explained by only an impact? There is more involved than just mechanical contact.

    If objects strike at an angle, other than a right angle, they would make non-symmetrical circles. Also, a sequence of impacts would destroy the clarity of the previously formed features.
    Some have offered an explanation which involves extremely tight timing between the object's of the supposed disintigration and the encounter with the larger body. This is highly speculative and ignores a far more plausable explanation, electric discharge between differently charged bodies occurring prior to disintigration, for a straight line of features and a termination zone.

    Considering the appearance of crater chains, there are too many problems not answerable by the impact theory for it to be valid.

    The JPL image from Ganymede, one of Jupiterís moons, is a perfect example to compare to the CRT discharge-chains.

    Another mechanism must be considered to explain the formation of crater chains.

    Two possible causes will be suggested here and I will let the pictures make the case of either an electric discharge by an object making a glancing pass of the planet's surface or electric discharge from another source. The other source involves a perspective of much larger considerations that do not directly apply to the CRT experiments but represent another form of Electrical discharge machining. See the work of Wal Thornhill to understand its application to comets, moons and other bodies.

    There is a wealth of evidence which suggests either of these two options to be feasible.

    The patterns give us details to draw upon for comparison and if we let the patterns speak to our reasoning we may see through a fog created by an absence of eye witnesses and an abundance of speculation about impact events.

    One detail to take note of in the CRT images is that a whole circle is often at one end and then a series of semi-circles are adjacent.

    The first point of discharge can be recognized.

    This pattern occurs with little variance!

    TV Crater-chain Image

    When motion across the CRTís surface is slow enough to get repeated discharges in close proximity the semi-circles get tighter forming a weld-like bead.

    The following attributes give the mechanism of electric discharge an advantage toward explaining how planetary-type crater chains were made:
    1. Direction of movement produces specific patterns which are consistent in repeated tests with electrical discharges.
    2. Symmetry is very well preserved from one discharge point to the next. The previous patterns are nearly undisturbed by subsequent discharges.
    3. In the case of the Ganymede chain there is an additional clue at the left end of the chain which points to the notion of a single body discharging along the chain 'and then fragmenting' directly over the surface. Note the fresh powder covering over the surface just at the end of the chain.

Here are some other image from experiments.

link to CRT image(side streams)

In experiments, by Plasmatic of Thunderbolts forum, with an ion air purifier the results are quite interesting.

And if that isn't convincing, then you need to see this image.

The previous two images are some of the results from experiments conducted by James St.Pe (Plasmatic MnemoHistory on Thunderbolts forum). They provide an idea of discharge effects in deep material. Here the patterns hold to the symmetry and many other details and are an improvement to the CRT results due to the raised rims of the craters.

In regard to individual craters;

Craters that are not a part of a chain share a common circular symmetry and often have concentrations of material or other signitures of specific forces at work in their interiors.

Image from European Space agency's Stereo Camera

Internal radial features are frequently seen and in some cases correlate with a concentration of material which has Lichtenberg (lightening-like) features.

Interior features of point-discharges from CRT experiment

At a glance you can see many similarities to planetary features and as you look closer others become apparent including miniature craters adjacent to the path of the discharge chain, parallel rills and berme.

TV Crater-chain Image

The CRT experiments have shown that direction of movement is revealed in the crater-chainís arrangement. When discharge-overlap occurs, the whole circle marks the first point of discharge and the semi-circles are subsequent discharges.

From observations, the reason may be that at each point of discharge the area becomes partially neutralized or polarized so an adjacent discharge will only involve material beyond the range of a previous discharges.

The possibility of a residual polarity signature is demonstrated by where material is deposited or repelled. There is more mentioned below as supporting observations.

From an examination of many discharge patterns created in the dust on an old CRT a clear challenger has stepped into the ring as a possible mechanism which can make craters and crater chains but the patterns made by electricity do not stop here.

Electric discharge patterns on a CRT go way beyond craters

Spider-like features are commonly seen on planetary bodies. We have two contrasting examples; the ravines of the Martian south-polar region, and features at Mars' equator in the form of star-like dunes. The process behind the first should not be confused with the process of the second even though there are similarities in appearance. 3D viewing is revealing.

These experiments have given both types but the star-like dunes are the most impressive example of electrically formed features, accumulation which was instantaneous, yet these may also have long term growth as well. (/rev13)(/crctn17)

Fiberglass spiders on CRT

Material has been seen to collect in thin tendrils at the time of discharge and more importantly after the discharge has ceased at that location.

The link below shows an image that gets two different views of what is being seen. Some people see features elevated above the surroundings while others see the surroundings elevated above the feature. When these images are viewed with the help of 3D methods, the topography seems to take on it's true view.

Speculation from article

The next image from CRT experiments shows material gathered electrically, with positive relief. Elevated features with these characteristics can be found on planetary bodies but don't be confused by the ravine network seen at Mars' south polar region. I made that mistake initially when i believed what people were telling me about a feature, even though my eyes were not seeing, with certainty, what was being proclaimed.

Instead take a close look at another region on Mars near its equator. These features have many similarities to several formed during CRT experiments and they give a strong hint of the presence of electrical interaction as an activity involved in the formation of planetary features.

Make your own observations and please provide feedback.

Raised Spiders from a high angle

(Amendment 2013)
We have the following examples of CO2 sublimation to use as an example of the diverse processes
which can create dendritic (tree-like branching) features.

U of A Image of Martian Spiders

In these instances we might ask if the material being eroded is being managed by a dynamic principles that can apply to the many other processes of erosion.
Material being dislodged from its parent counterpart seems to detach in a very consistant pattern.. I will call the features which result,, departure-dendritics. Numerous mechanical processes seem to leave similar features in ravine form.. Even in electrical process involved in these experiments and others from 2011-12 show that departure of material from its parent structure leaves very similar features to those made with CO2 and with water. Varying degrees of sharpness are noted.

Identifying the mechnism is made more difficult by this so visual apperance must be omitted from our argument. Direct observation and examination of surface materials and witnessing the mechanisms is required.

The primary focus of this paper was the alteration of material at locations where electrical discharge occurred. This includes removal and accumulation and is not limited to instantaneous results. See the directory mars-stars.(end amendment)

Link to HiRISE Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

You will find features on Mars that look like these as well.
link to image (grouped spiders)

How can this be, except there be a common mechanism.

streaming deposit

Material was seen to stream off the probe (my finger) and attract to the tendrils of spiders, avoiding other areas. Subsequent discharges add or remove material depending on power settings of the CRT.

Spiders Positive and negative

These patterns occurred when two CRTs were passed in close proximity screen to screen. One had powder on the surface and the other didnít, at first.

Link to image of pass-over spider & cluster

But the most inteesting results from the dual-CRT pass-over experiment are the next two images.

link to Screen-Pass Spiders

(begin 2017 clarification)
The spiders (below) correlate to the craters on the upper monitor. These features are opposing sides of individual discharges occurring while two CRTís were passed in close proximity. One CRT (lower) was covered with dusty material. The upper monitor was a clean slate and then the following features developed.

To Screen-Pass Craters

One monitor was powered-on the other powered-off. Three passes are represented here. An artificial mound was made in the dust of the lower monitor and it was modified by the electrical activity. Additionally, material became stacked into columns of small grains which held their orientation throughout photographing. I didn't know that they were there until close examination of 3D-images and examining the recessed spiders shown previously.
(end clarification)

These results got further attention and an addition of new evidence which was presented in 2008, reviewable at this link
and then in 2011 there are these results and again expansion occurred shown here as of July 2012
By the end of 2012
results have further supported previous experiments and
further demostrated other factors in electrical sculpting of planetary surfaces.

In summary

Electric discharge to or from a surface can alter surface material by a variety of mechanisms and result in replicating many features seen on planetary bodies.

The list began with craters and crater chains and has expanded to rills, positive-relief spiders and negative spiders.

Craters on the rims of other craters are also seen in the CRT experiments.

Electric discharge deserves careful consideration as the cause of several types of features on celestial bodies.

At this time we may struggle to accept electricity at work in planetary scale
but the evidence will clear the way.

And we do have evidence in abundance of the electric mechanism at work,
recorded from Io to Mars and beyond.

    Credits to team
    Wal Thornhill
    And participants of Thunderbolts forum

To Jesus be the Glory

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